Posted on

Clay Fall 3

Clay Fall One-Week Session III
November 3-9, 2019
Eleanor Anderson
Sketch Your Way into Clay

Due to the current risks associated with bringing a large group of people together on our campus, we have decided to cancel all spring 2020 one-week workshops. Please see our COVID-19 Response page for more information. Thank you for your understanding and support as we navigate this evolving situation.

Posted on

Metals Fall 3

Metals Fall One-Week Session III
November 3-9, 2019
Lisa Colby
Square One

Due to the current risks associated with bringing a large group of people together on our campus, we have decided to cancel all spring 2020 one-week workshops. Please see our COVID-19 Response page for more information. Thank you for your understanding and support as we navigate this evolving situation.

Posted on

Textiles Fall 3

Textiles Fall One-Week Session III
November 3-9, 2019
Leigh Hilbert
A Place for Tools

Due to the current risks associated with bringing a large group of people together on our campus, we have decided to cancel all spring 2020 one-week workshops. Please see our COVID-19 Response page for more information. Thank you for your understanding and support as we navigate this evolving situation.

Posted on

Books & Paper Fall 2

Books & Paper Fall One-Week Session II
October 20-26, 2019
Lisa Blackburn 
The Artist’s Book: Simple Structure, Endless Possibility

Due to the current risks associated with bringing a large group of people together on our campus, we have decided to cancel all spring 2020 one-week workshops. Please see our COVID-19 Response page for more information. Thank you for your understanding and support as we navigate this evolving situation.

Posted on

Print & Letterpress Fall 2

Print & Letterpress Fall One-Week Session II
October 20-26, 2019
Lynda Sherman
Breaking the Algorithm

Due to the current risks associated with bringing a large group of people together on our campus, we have decided to cancel all spring 2020 one-week workshops. Please see our COVID-19 Response page for more information. Thank you for your understanding and support as we navigate this evolving situation.

Posted on

Drawing Fall 2

Drawing & Painting Fall One-Week Session II
October 20-26, 2019
Dietlind Vander Schaaf
Encaustic 101: Painting with Wax

Due to the current risks associated with bringing a large group of people together on our campus, we have decided to cancel all spring 2020 one-week workshops. Please see our COVID-19 Response page for more information. Thank you for your understanding and support as we navigate this evolving situation.

Posted on

Glass Fall 1

Glass Fall One-Week Session I
October 6-12, 2019
Sean Donlon
Heat, Bend, Repeat

This workshop will explore unusual approaches to flameworked glass. We’ll cover a range of glass forming techniques, from the lathe to the bench, along with unconventional coloring methods and mirroring. In addition to basic flameworking skills, students will learn to form glass with the lathe and fabricate graphite to make specific shapes of glass. We’ll have constructive critiques and discuss design, composition, concept development, mirroring methods, fun, and life. All levels. Code F01GB

Studio artist; teaching: Virginia Commonwealth University, Chrysler Museum Glass Studio (VA); Virginia Museum of Fine Arts fellowship; exhibitions: solo at Quirk Gallery (VA), Virginia Museum of Contemporary Art, Peninsula Fine Arts Center (VA), Houston Center for Contemporary Craft, National Liberty Museum (Philadelphia), Washington Project for the Arts (DC).

seandonlondesign.com

Sean Donlon, detail of "Halo," installation: 9 x 13 x 1 feet
Posted on

Photo Fall 1

Photo Fall One-Week Session I
October 6-12, 2019
Benjamin Dimmitt
Black & White Landscape Photography

Through photographing in the field, experimentation, and critique, we’ll learn to make compelling images of the landscape. We’ll consider historic and current practice as we learn to think about landscape—photographing in nearby mountains and forests and working in the darkroom with the goal of producing a cohesive body of prints. We’ll emphasize observation, personal vision, and exploring new vocabularies. We’ll cover a wide range of topics including metering, exposure, depth of field, pinhole photography, film development, darkroom printing, split-filter burning, lighting, and composition. All levels. Code F01P

Studio artist; teaching: International Center of Photography (NYC), Warren Wilson College (NC), The Bascom (NC); exhibitions: Southeast Museum of Photography (FL), Ogden Museum (New Orleans), Soho Photo (NYC); collections: Museum of Fine Arts Houston, American Academy of Arts and Letters (NYC), Florida Museum of Photographic Arts.

benjamindimmitt.com

Benjamin Dimmitt, "Palm Hammock," selenium-toned gelatin silver print, 14 x 14 inches
Posted on

Specials Fall 1

Specials Fall One-Week Session I
October 6-12, 2019
Caverly Morgan & Joy Seidler
Immortal Messages: Mindful Making

That which is never born and never dies is always singing. This workshop invites you to explore ways we can source our creative endeavors from the deep river-beneath-the-river—the eternal wellspring of consciousness experienced in quiet moments of meditation and creative practice. We’ll explore how intention and attention, spontaneous play, structured limits, and direct experience of the mystery can guide us. We’ll employ multiple crafts—including paste-paper, journal making, clay, and more—as vehicles for the practice of presence and receptivity. We’ll explore meditation, weaving creative mindful practice into life, and the role of service in the craft arts. All levels. Code CB-Flex

Caverly: founder and guiding teacher of the mindfulness organizations Presence Collective and Peace in Schools; studied for eight years in a Zen monastery; former Penland core fellow. Joy: studio artist and educator; over twenty years of experience teaching journaling at Penland and elsewhere; journals included in national and international collections.

caverlymorgan.org

Caverly Morgan, "Tribute to Paulus," clay, 3 x 3-1/2 inches
Joy Seidler, "Fern Journal," paper, board, waxed linen, 9-1/4 x 6-1/4 inches
Posted on

Wood Fall Concentration

Wood Fall Concentration
September 22 – November 15, 2019
Jack Mauch
All Outward Appearances

In this workshop we’ll ponder the depths of something shallow: that infinitely thin layer we call the surface. Although wood is our material, we’ll think like graphic designers, working with composition, color, pattern, and texture to create expressive surfaces for furniture and sculpture. Our primary techniques will be marquetry, parquetry, wood and metal inlay, texturing, and painting. Beginners will have ample opportunity to learn woodworking fundamentals through project-based assignments, which will be adapted to accommodate and challenge more experienced students. We’ll value process and discovery over product, keep a steady but contemplative pace, and mine the veins of our aesthetic curiosity—especially when that takes us deep below the surface. Guest instructor Ellen Kaspern will join us for two weeks. All levels. Code F00W

Studio artist; teaching: Arrowmont (TN), Penland; awards: Massachusetts Cultural Council Artist Fellowship, Mineck Fellowship from the Society of Arts and Crafts (Boston); residencies: Windgate International Turning Exchange at the Center for Art in Wood (Philadelphia), Haystack Open Studio Residency (ME), Center for Furniture Craftsmanship Studio Fellowship (ME), Penland Core Fellowship; collections: Center for Art in Wood.

jackmauch.com

Scholarships still available!

wooden box by Jack Mauch with wood veneer pattern
Jack Mauch, "Double-Lidded Box," sapele, ebony, paint, book cloth, sand-shaded pear veneer, 4 x 6 x 8 inches
Posted on

Textiles Fall Concentration

Textiles Fall Concentration
September 22 – November 15, 2019
Bhakti Ziek
The Vocabulary of Weaving

Weaving can take many forms—from functional to purely aesthetic—that share the distinctive vocabulary of the medium. We’ll explore the language of weaving, using the floor loom as our primary vehicle. The workshop will include clear instructions on how to set up a loom and weave, and we’ll cover any weave structures students are interested in—double weave, waffleweave, overshot, weft brocade, summer and winter, and tapestry are some possibilities. We’ll investigate color interaction, varied materials, texture, density, pattern, and conceptual ideas. The use of weave software and natural dyes  will be introduced early in the session. We’ll cover dye processes relevant to weaving, such as immersion dyeing, woven shibori, ikat, and painted warps. Bring curiosity, patience, and a willingness to explore, and we’ll tap the potential of weaving to be a transformative experience full of magic and insight into the connectedness of all things. Guest instructor Cyndy Barbone will join us for one week. All levels. NOTE: Textiles workshops are taught in walk-up studios accessible by a stair lift. Code F00TB

Studio artist; teaching: Arizona State University, University of Kansas, Philadelphia College of Textiles & Science, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Haystack (ME), Penland; recent exhibitions: Rijswick Biennial 2019 (The Netherlands), deCordova Museum Biennial 2019 (MA); collections: Museum of Arts and Design (NYC), US Embassy in Mauritania, Princeton University (NJ); co-author of The Woven Pixel and Weaving on a Backstrap Loom.

bhaktiziek.com

woven piece incorporating text and bold geometric shapes
Bhakti Ziek, detail of "2018," silk
Posted on

Print & Letterpress Fall Concentration

Papermaking/Printmaking Fall Concentration
September 22 – November 15, 2019
Georgia Deal
Paper & The Unique Print

This intensive workshop will explore the endless possibilities for combining handmade paper and monoprinting. We’ll begin by diving into the basics of papermaking, exploring techniques to create unique substrates for printing. Then we’ll cover a wide range of monoprint and monotype processes, including reductive, multiplate, and gum-transfer printing. In the paper studio we’ll work with Eastern and Western fibers, and topics will include stenciling, inclusions and embedments, pigmenting, and pulp transfer techniques. The back-and-forth of working in both media will expand your visual vocabulary and encourage you to own every aspect of the process, from paper to print! Papermaker Helen Hiebert will join us for one week as our guest instructor. All levels. Code F00X

Studio artist; professor emeritus at Corcoran College of Art and Design (DC); other teaching: Arrowmont (TN), Haystack (ME), University of Georgia Cortona Italy Program, Pyramid-Atlantic (MD); collections: Library of Congress (DC), Corcoran Gallery of Art (DC), Philadelphia Museum, Yale University Library (CT).

Scholarships still available!

layered print in aqua, orange, and red on handmade paper
Georgia Deal, "Roses & Razorwire," screenprint and gum transfer on handmade paper, 24 x 30 inches
Posted on

Metals Fall Concentration

Metals Fall Concentration
September 22 – November 15, 2019
Maia Leppo
Jewelry: Designing for Production

This workshop will focus on designing and creating production lines of jewelry using sheet and wire steel, silver, and other materials. Steel’s low cost and light weight will encourage experimentation and facilitate making larger work. We’ll cover ideation to fabrication for rings, earrings, necklaces, and brooches. Along with bench skills, topics will include outsourcing projects, fabricating mechanisms, making multiples, finishing, and marketing. We’ll delve into computer aided design with Rhino, which will open our jewelry to design possibilities beyond our hand skills. 
This workshop will be especially relevant to those interested in working smart and making thoughtful designs in series. Guest instructor Sarah Rachel Brown will join us for one week. All levels. Note: This studio has steps that compromise accessibility. Code F00MA

Studio artist; teaching: Arrowmont (TN), Touchstone (PA); residencies: Arrowmont, Pocosin Arts (NC); exhibitions: Facèré Jewelry Art Gallery (Seattle), Ombré Gallery (Cincinnatti), Galerie Marzee (Netherlands); galleries: Society for Contemporary Craft (Pittsburgh), Quirk (VA), Lillstreet (Chicago), Gallery 360 (Minneapolis), Artful Home (online).

maialeppo.com

gold and steel earrings
Maia Leppo, "Dots and Open Dangle Earrings," 24k gold-plated steel, steel, silver, monofilament, 2 x 1 inches
Posted on

Iron Fall Concentration

Iron Fall Concentration
September 22 – November 15, 2019
Andrew Hayes
Focus on Fabrication

Starting with raw materials, you’ll learn to cut, form, weld, and finish steel as you make functional and/or sculptural objects. We’ll start by working through several projects to get acquainted with the studio and tools. Then we’ll move to more independent work focusing on concept, design, and execution. Techniques will include measuring; layout; cutting with torches, saws, cutoff wheels, and shears; gas, MIG, and TIG welding; finishing; grinding; sanding; filing; patina; paint; and presentation. Guest instructor Mike Rossi will join us for a week of working with multiples. The goal of this workshop is for you to find your aesthetic in steel. All levels. Code F00I

Studio artist; teaching: Haystack (ME), Anderson Ranch (CO), Penland; collections: Yale Art Museum (CT), Museum of Fine Arts Houston, Metal Museum (TN); representation: JHB Gallery (NYC), Seager Gray Gallery (CA), Blue Spiral (NC); former Penland core fellow and resident artist.

andrew-hayes.squarespace.com

Scholarships still available!

steel wall sculpture by Andrew Hayes with accents of yellow paint and book pages
Andrew Hayes, "Yellow Intersection," steel, book paper, paint, 21 x 6 x 3 inches
Posted on

Glass Fall Concentration

Glass Fall Concentration
September 22 – November 15, 2019
Greg Fidler, Kit Paulson, Kenny Pieper & Pablo Soto
Penland Glass: A Bird’s-Eye View

This exploration of hot glass, taught by four nationally-known artists who live near the school, will be as varied and inspiring as the Penland glass community itself. Pablo Soto will begin with a focus on foundations­—setups, proportions, centering, and heat—along with discussions of aesthetics, inspiration, and the formal qualities of hot glass. Kenny Pieper will reinforce these fundamentals while introducing cane work and stemware. Greg Fidler will challenge students to push forms out of round as they explore imbalance and tension. Finally, Kit Paulson will help students use their accumulated knowledge to move from “how” to “why,” to pursue individual projects, and to dig into conceptual concerns through reading, writing, thinking, and drawing exercises. Each instructor will lead for two weeks and make regular visits throughout the workshop. Visiting demonstrators, field trips, and studio visits will give students even more access to the deep pool of talent that is the Penland glass community. All levels. Code F00GA

Greg: studio artist, chief administrative officer at Spruce Pine Batch (NC); work represented by Sandra Ainseley Gallery (Toronto); former Penland resident artist. Kit: Penland resident artist; teaching: Pilchuck (WA), Blid-Werk Frauenau (Germany), National College of Art and Design (Dublin); collections: Tacoma Museum of Glass (WA), KODE (Norway). Kenny: studio artist; teaching: Corning (NY), Pittsburgh Glass Center, Cleveland Institute of Art, Penland; collections: Corning Museum (NY), Museum of Fine Arts Boston, New Orleans Museum. Pablo: studio artist, glass fabricator; teaching: Haystack (ME), Ox-Bow (MI), Corning (NY) Canberra Glass Works (Australia), Pilchuck (WA); exhibitions: Blue Spiral 1 (NC), David McCune Gallery (NC), Momentum Gallery (NC).

kitpaulsonglass.com
pieperglass.com
sotoglass.com

sinuous glass sculpture by Greg Fidler
Greg Fidler, "Bowing Series Dark Chocolate Sand," glass, 29 inches tall
25 cobalt blue stemmed glasses by Kenny Pieper
Kenny Pieper, "Blue Satin Goblet Study," glass, wood, 37 x 44 x 6 inches
flameworked glass moth mask by Kit Paulson
Kit Paulson, "Moth/Mouth," borosilicate glass, 20 x 20 x 12 inches
colored glass forms blown by Pablo Soto
Pablo Soto, "Fitted Forms," glass, largest 16 x 7 x 7 inches
Posted on

Clay Fall Concentration

Clay Fall Concentration
September 22 – November 15, 2019
Suze Lindsay & Kent McLaughlin
Form, Function & Fire

This workshop will be an expansive study of utilitarian pottery conducted through demonstrations, discussions, sketchbook exercises, and structured practice. We’ll share our individual approaches to making pottery, including wheelthrowing, altered forms, handbuilding with slabs and coils, and drop-and-drape molds. We’ll have conversations about making pots for daily and ritual use and engage in exercises that will develop continuity between form and surface. Presentations will include images and videos that will encourage your personal voice. Guest instructor Dan Finnegan will share his work reflecting his training at Winchcombe Pottery (UK). We will fire stoneware and porcelain in salt, reduction, and wood kilns. All levels. Code F00CA

Suze: studio potter; teaching: Anderson Ranch (CO), Haystack (ME), Arrowmont (TN), Curaumilla Art Center (Chile), Penland; collections: Taipei Yingge Ceramics Museum (Taiwan), San Angelo Museum (TX), Asheville Art Museum (NC); former Penland resident artist. Kent: studio potter; teaching: Anderson Ranch (CO), Arrowmont (TN), Curaumilla Art Center (Chile), Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute (China), Penland; collections: San Angelo Museum (TX), Asheville Art Museum (NC), North Carolina Pottery Center.

forkmountainpottery.com

ceramic tray with green floral motifs
Suze Lindsay, "Fan Tray," handbuilt, salt-fired stoneware, 15 x 13 x 2 inches
Tall lidded jar in brown and aqua glazed porcelain
Kent McLaughlin, "Mashiko Jar," reduction-fired porcelain, wax resist glaze, 25 x 4 x 4 inches
Posted on

Spring Visiting Artist

Spring Visiting Artist

Each fall and spring, Penland invites a visiting artist to join us for one or two weeks to engage with Concentration instructors and students. This spring we are delighted to have two visiting artists.

Cristina Córdova

Cristina Córdova is a ceramic sculptor and teacher. Her awards include the USArtists Fellowship and the North Carolina Arts Council Fellowship. Her work is in the collections of the Renwick Gallery (DC), the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico, and the Museum of Contemporary Art of Puerto Rico. She has taught at Penland, Haystack (ME), Santa Fe Clay (NM), and Anderson Ranch (CO).

cristinacordova.com

Cristina will give a visiting artist lecture on Tuesday, April 2 at 8:15 PM in Northlight titled Manos abiertas: making from where you are. This event is free and open to the public.

“Many of the themes that ground my practice are rooted in the identity of someone from the Caribbean, from Puerto Rico. Amidst all the vantage points that catalyze creativity this one, time and time again, offers a clear stance from which images of weight emerge. And yet, having lived for years amidst the ebb and flow of Penland, this once impermeable identity now has softened boundaries that are in constant dialogue with all that is received and understood outside of the small, evergreen territory I still consider home. This lecture will speak to the influences that have shaped my creative practice and explore the emergence of themes tied to identity and displacement through the lens of figurative ceramics.”

Jaime Suárez

Jaime Suárez is a sculptor, ceramist, installation artist, set designer, draftsman, and teacher. His work has been collected by the Metropolitan Museum of Art (NYC), the Museum of Art in Colombia, and the Museum of Art of Puerto Rico. He is an associate professor in the school of architecture at the Universidad Politécnica de Puerto Rico.

Jaime will give a visiting artist lecture on Wednesday, April 3 at 8:15 PM in Northlight titled Clay Beyond Ceramics. This event is free and open to the public.

“Three experiences during the first year of architecture studies influenced my development as an artist: reading The Book of Tea by Kakuzo Okakura, a lecture by Louis Khan, and an investigation and paper on the work of Antonio Gaudi. An appreciation for nature and the passing of time, the inherent quality of materials, and the search for originality have shaped a diverse expression through clay which has extended to paper and concrete. Through the talk, I will share both conceptual concerns and techniques.”    

Cristina Córdova, "detail of Jungla," photographic polyptych, ceramic, resin, paper, glass, plastic, wood, 7 x 18 feet
Jaime Suárez, "detail of Tótem Telúrico," ceramic, concrete, granite, 40 feet tall
Posted on

Fall Visiting Artist

Fall Visiting Artist

Each fall and spring, Penland invites a visiting artist to join us for one or two weeks to engage with Concentration instructors and students. The intent is to add an invigorating presence to the session, enhancing the experience for everyone.

Tift Merritt

Tift Merritt is a singer and songwriter. In her nearly 20-year career, she has recorded seven albums of original material and earned a Grammy nomination. Tift is known for her short-story-style songwriting and her creative collaborations. She has shared the stage with bands as varied as Nick Lowe and Jason Isbell and was a member of Andrew Bird’s band, The Hands of Glory. In 2017, she designed a fabric collection for Bernhardt Design inspired by the guitar straps she makes with vintage ribbons. Most recently, she has been a regular contributor to the Oxford American, chronicling her tours with her young daughter Jean. The New Yorker called Tift “the bearer of a proud tradition of distaff country soul that reaches back to artists like Dusty Springfield and Bobbie Gentry.”

tiftmerritt.com

portrait of Tift Merritt
Image: Alexandra Valenti / Sacks & Co.
Posted on

Drawing & Painting Fall Concentration

Drawing & Painting Fall Concentration
September 23 – November 16, 2018
Tonya D. Lee
Color & Abstraction

In this process-oriented workshop we’ll develop abstract imagery using drawing, painting, low-tech printmaking, and collage. We’ll consider color as both form and content and look to the visual world for moments of personal expression. The physical, psychological, and cultural aspects of color will provide a theoretical foundation for its role in abstraction. An emphasis on process and experimentation will be supported by demonstrations, one-on-one and group discussions, and presentations on historic and contemporary references. All levels. Code F00D

Studio artist; teaching: Monmouth University (NJ), Art Institute of Pittsburgh (online); Art Institute of Jacksonville (FL), University of North Florida, Penland; exhibitions: Florida State College, Jacksonville Museum of Contemporary Art (FL), Parlor Gallery (NJ), J. Johnson Gallery (FL).

mediocrity.com

Tonya D. Lee, "Untitled (1079)," acrylic on canvas, 20 x 16 inches
Posted on

Wood Summer Session 7

Wood Summer Session 7
August 23-29, 2020
Aspen Golann & Julian Watts
Sculptural Carving: Spoons

Explore the potential of woodcarving by transforming the wooden spoon into an abstract, sculptural object. We’ll discuss the intersection of craft, design, and art, and challenge our preconceptions about the role that form and function play in the everyday objects around us. Each student will design and carve a sculptural wooden spoon that subverts, exaggerates, or illuminates something new about this familiar utensil. We’ll survey historic and contemporary designs and cover traditional and modern carving techniques, essential power tools, wood species selection, wood grain, sanding, and finishing. All levels. Code 07W

Aspen: studio artist, Penland wood studio coordinator; teaching: Lie Nielsen Toolworks (ME), Haystack (ME). Julian: studio artist; teaching: California College of the Arts, Anderson Ranch (CO), Haystack (ME); representation: Patrick Parrish Gallery (NYC).

aspengolann.com@aspen_golann
julianwattsstudio.com@julianwattsstudio

view of the carved arm of an elaborate pink velvet chair
Aspen Golann, detail of "Pink Throne," mahogany carving, ash structure, silk, velvet
grouping of carved, non-functional spoon objects
Julian Watts, "Maple Utensil Collection," bleached maple, dimensions variable
Posted on

Textiles B Summer Session 7

Textiles Summer Session 7
August 23-29, 2020
Hillary Waters Fayle
Plants: Muse, Medium & Material

This workshop will be a blend of art, science, and natural history focused on botanical collaboration. We’ll spend time looking at and learning about plants: taking guided walks, drawing, stitching, spinning, sketching, pressing, printing, painting, and studying botanical material. We’ll also experiment with leaves and other plant materials as substrates that can be woven, cut, knotted, stitched, collaged, etc. We’ll source plants, nuts, seeds, and other materials to brew inks and dyes for textiles and paper. Plants and other botanical materials will be our means to explore the connections between nature and humanity. All levels. NOTE: Textiles workshops are taught in walk-up studios accessible by a stair lift. Code 07TB

Assistant professor and head of fibers at Virginia Commonwealth University; exhibitions: Blue Spiral 1 (NC), Sager Braudis Gallery (MO), Pensacola Museum of Art (FL), Ellen Noel Art Museum (TX).

hillarywfayle.com
@hillary.waters

circle of embroidered leaves
Hillary Waters Fayle, "Circular Meditations I & II," stitched and embroidered holly leaves, 
14 x 14 inches
Posted on

Textiles A Summer Session 7

Textiles Summer Session 7
August 23-29, 2020
Stephanie Metz
Felt: Fiber in the Round

This workshop will be a thorough introduction to the tools, processes, and possibilities of needle felting. Students will learn to manipulate wool into free-standing, solid felt sculptures using barbed felting needles to coax loose fibers into sophisticated shapes. We’ll explore solid and hollow form-building, armatures, and adding mixed-media. Felting particularly lends itself to representing organic forms, and students are welcome to bring source material. This innovative use of a humble, inexpensive material is bound to energize your art-making. Note: feltmaking involves repetitive and vigorous hand and arm movement. All levels. NOTE: Textiles workshops are taught in walk-up studios accessible by a stair lift. Code 07TA

Studio artist; teaching: Arrowmont (TN), Yuma Symposium (AZ), California College of the Arts; recent exhibitions: Jack Fischer (San Francisco), de Saisset Museum (CA); collections: Triton Museum (CA), National Centre for Craft & Design (UK).

stephaniemetz.com
@stephanie_metz_sculpture

installation of large, textured pod sculptures
Stephanie Metz, "In Touch: Hanging Pods," wool, industrial felt, filler, cable, approximately 50 x 30 x 30 each